# Analog quantum simulation of gravitational waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate

- Tupac Bravo
^{6}Email author, - Carlos Sabín
^{6}and - Ivette Fuentes
^{6}

**2**:3

**DOI: **10.1140/epjqt16

© Bravo et al.; licensee Springer on behalf of EPJ 2014

**Received: **30 May 2014

**Accepted: **26 November 2014

**Published: **4 January 2015

## Abstract

We show how to vary the physical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in order to mimic an effective gravitational-wave spacetime. In particular, we focus in the simulation of the recently discovered creation of particles by a *real* spacetime distortion in box-type traps. We show that, by modulating the speed of sound in the BEC, the phonons experience the effects of a simulated spacetime ripple with experimentally amenable parameters. These results will inform the experimental programme of gravitational wave astronomy with cold atoms.

### Keywords

quantum simulation gravitational waves Bose-Einstein condensates## Introduction

Quantum simulators [1] were originally conceived by Feynman as experimentally amenable quantum systems whose dynamics would mimic the behaviour of more inaccessible systems appearing in Nature. Together with the exploration of this visionary insight in countless quantum platforms at an increasingly accelerated rate, last years had witnessed the birth of alternate approaches to quantum simulation. For instance, a quantum simulator can be used to emulate a phenomenon predicted by a well established theory but very hard to test in the laboratory, such as Zitterbewegung [2]. Going a step further, it can also be used to materialise an artificial dynamics that has never been observed in Nature while being theoretically conceivable [3, 4] or even to emulate the action of a mathematical transformation [5].

Einstein’s theory of general relativity [6] predicts the existence of gravitational waves [7], namely perturbations of the spacetime generated by accelerated mass distributions. Since sources are typically very far from Earth, the theory predicts that the amplitude of gravitational waves reaching our planet is extremely small and thus, finding experimental evidence of their existence is a difficult task. Indeed the quest for the detection of these spacetime distortions [8] has been one of the biggest enterprises of modern science and the focus of a great amount of work during the last decades, both in theory and experiment. Recently, some of the authors of this manuscript have proposed a novel method of gravitational wave detection based on the generation of particles in a Bose-Einstein condensate produced by the propagation of the gravitational ripple [9]. Detection is carried out through a resonance effect which is possible because the range of frequencies of typical gravitational waves is similar to the one of the Bogoliubov modes of a BEC confined in a box-like potential. Then the gravitational wave is able to hit a particle creation resonance, in a phenomenon resembling the Dynamical Casimir Effect [10, 11]. Due to the frequencies involved, this effect is completely absent in optical cavities. The use of our technique would relax some of the most daunting demands of other programmes for gravitational wave detection such as the use of highly-massive mirrors and *km*-long interferometer arms. However, due to the extremely small amplitude of the gravitational waves when they reach the Earth, their detection is always challenging, since it requires an experimental setup extremely well isolated from possible sources of noise. It would be of great benefit for the experiment if the amplitude of the spacetime ripples were larger.

In this paper, we show how to realise a quantum simulation of the generation of particles by gravitational waves in a BEC. We exploit the fact that the Bogoliubov modes of a trapped BEC satisfy a Klein-Gordon equation on a curved background metric. The metric has two terms [9, 12–14], one corresponding to the real spacetime metric and a second term, corresponding to what we call the analogue gravity metric, which depends on BEC parameters such as velocity flows and energy density. While in [9] we analyse the effect of changes in the real spacetime metric, in this case we consider the manipulation of the analogue gravity [15–18] metric, assuming that the real spacetime is flat. Since in this case the experimentalist is able to manipulate artificially the parameters of the condensate, we are able to simulate spacetime distortions with a much larger amplitude, as if the laboratory were closer to the source of the gravitational ripples. We show that with realistic experimental parameters, a physically meaningful model of gravitational wave can be simulated with current technology.

The paper is organised as follows. First we review the effects of a *real* gravitational wave in the Bogoliubov modes of the BEC. Then we consider the case in which there are non-zero initial velocity flows in the BEC, showing that there is always a reference frame in which we can modulate the speed of sound in such a way that the phonons experience an effect analog to the one produced by the propagation of a real spacetime wave. Finally, for the sake of simplicity we assume that there are no velocity flows in the BEC and we show that the gravitational wave can be simulated with current technology.

## Gravitational waves in a BEC

*c*is the speed of light in the vacuum. We consider Minkowski coordinates . In the transverse traceless (TT) gauge [7], the perturbation corresponding to a gravitational wave moving in the

*z*-direction can be written as,

*p*is the total pressure,

*ρ*the total density and is the 4-velocity flow on the BEC. In the absence of background flows and then,

Ignoring the conformal factor - which can always be done in 1D or in the case in which is time-independent - we notice that the metric is the flat Minkowski metric with the speed of light being replaced by the speed of sound . By considering a rescaled time coordinate we recover the standard Minkowski metric . This means that the phonons live on a spacetime in which, due to the BEC ground state properties, time flows in a different fashion and excitations propagate accordingly.

In [9], it is shown that the propagation of the gravitational wave generates particles in a BEC confined in a box-like trap. This particle creation is characterised by the Bogoliubov coefficients
, where
,
are the *m* and *n* mode solutions of Eq. (5) given by the metrics in Eq. (10) and Eq. (9) respectively. In particular, if we model the gravitational wave by a sinusoidal oscillation of frequency Ω that matches the sum of the frequencies of a certain pair of modes *m* and *n*, the number of particles grows linearly in time. We refer the reader to [9] for more details.

## Quantum simulation

The aim of this section is to show how to get a line element similar to the one in Eq. (11) by manipulating the parameters of the BEC while the real spacetime is assumed to be flat.

*ρ*might depend on the coordinates. We make another coordinate transformation (this time only in

*χ*), so that

*ℓ*is a constant with units of distance. In order to do this,

*χ*as a function of

*τ*must be

*τ*- substituting Eq. (20) in Eq. (17) as

*τ*, it is natural to ask the significance of the constant parameter

*ℓ*. For this, we see that in the absence of a simulated gravitational wave, Eq. (17) becomes , for a particular value . A convenient choice is , so that the velocity of sound can be expressed as for . Hence,

*ℓ*is represented by the hyperbola in the Minkowski coordinate system. A final coordinate transformation is made, defining

*ξ*as

as desired.

### The case with no background flows. Experimental implementation

In the last section, we have shown how the speed of sound can be modified to mimic a gravitational wave in a coordinate system in which there are no background flows. Now, we will consider for simplicity that this coordinate system is the lab frame and relate our results directly with experimental parameters.

*t*:

*ρ*is the density,

*m*the atomic mass and the coupling strength is

*a*is the scattering length. So, finally:

*a*can be modulated in time by using the dependence of the scattering length on an external magnetic field around a Feshbach resonance. The aim is thus to achieve:

*ω*is the width of the Feshbach resonance. Considering a time-dependent magnetic field

*δB*:

*ω*, [20] and assuming that we can control the magnetic field in a 0.1

*G*scale (so we can take ), we estimate the amplitude of the simulated wave as

This is much larger that the gravitational waves that we expect to see in the Earth , due to the fact that the Earth is far from typical sources of gravitational waves. Therefore it is interesting to think of the physical meaning of the gravitational waves that can be simulated with our techniques.

respectively, where *G* is Newton’s gravitational constant, *m* and *M* are the masses of the Earth and the Sun respectively, *r* the distance between the two bodies and *R* the distance between the detector and the centre of the mass of the system, which is assumed to be much larger than the wavelength *λ* of the gravitational wave
. Thus, if we consider the real masses of the Sun and the Earth, a distance between them of
and
, we find Ω in the kHz range - which is very convenient to generate phonons in the BEC - and the desired value of
. In [9] it is predicted that the changes in the covariance matrix of the Bogoliubov modes induced by gravitational waves of typical amplitudes
are in principle detectable. Therefore, the changes generated by a simulated wave of much larger amplitude, should be observed in an experiment with current cold-atoms technology.

## Conclusions

We have shown how to generate an artificial gravitational wave spacetime for the quantum excitations of a BEC. In the case in which there are no initial background flows, we show that the simulated ripple is obtained through a modulation of the speed of sound in the BEC. In the laboratory, this can be achieved with current technology by exploiting the dependence of the scattering length on the external magnetic field around a Feshbach resonance. With realistic experimental parameters, we find that simulated gravitational waves that can resonate with the Bogoliubov modes of the BEC. The amplitude of these artificial ripples is much larger than the typical amplitude expected for gravitational waves reaching the Earth, due to the fact that the Earth is very far from typical sources. Thus our simulated waves would mimic the waves generated by sources much closer to the BEC. This feature would enhance the effects of the ripple in the system, facilitating their detection. The experimental test of our predictions would be a proof-of-concept of the generation of particles by gravitational waves and would pave the way for the actual observation of *real* spacetime ripples in a BEC. More generally, our low-cost Earth-based tabletop experiment will inform the whole programme of gravitational wave astronomy.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

TB acknowledges funding from CONACYT. IF and CS acknowledge funding from EPSRC (CAF Grant No. EP/G00496X/2 to IF).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Georgescu IM, Ashhab S, Nori F:
**Quantum simulation.***Rev Mod Phys*2014,**86:**153–185. 10.1103/RevModPhys.86.153View ArticleADSGoogle Scholar - Gerritsma R, Kirchmair G, Zähringer F, Solano E, Blatt R, Roos CF:
**Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation.***Nature*2010,**463:**68–71. 10.1038/nature08688View ArticleADSGoogle Scholar - Casanova J, Sabín C, León J, Egusquiza IL, Gerritsma R, Roos CF, García-Ripoll JJ, Solano E:
**Quantum simulation of the majorana equation and unphysical operations.***Phys Rev X*2011.,**1:**Article ID 021018Google Scholar - Sabín C, Casanova J, García-Ripoll JJ, Lamata L, Solano E, León J:
**Encoding relativistic potential dynamics into free evolution.***Phys Rev A*2012.,**85:**Article ID 052301Google Scholar - Alvarez-Rodriguez U, Casanova J, Lamata L, Solano E:
**Quantum simulation of noncausal kinematic transformations.***Phys Rev Lett*2013.,**111:**Article ID 090503Google Scholar - Rindler W:
*Relativity: special, general and cosmological*. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford; 2006.Google Scholar - Flanagan EE, Hughes SA:
**The basics of gravitational wave theory.***New J Phys*2005.,**7**(1)**:**Article ID 204 - Aufmuth P, Danzmann K:
**Gravitational wave detectors.***New J Phys*2005.,**7:**Article ID 202Google Scholar - Sabín C, Bruschi DE, Ahmadi M, Fuentes I:
**Phonon creation by gravitational waves.***New J Phys.*2014.,**16:**Article ID 085003Google Scholar - Moore GT:
**Quantum theory of the electromagnetic field in a variable length one dimensional cavity.***J Math Phys*1970,**11:**269.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Wilson CM, Johansson G, Pourkabirian A, Simoen M, Johansson JR, Duty T, Nori F, Delsing P:
**Observation of the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting circuit.***Nature*2011,**479:**376–379. 10.1038/nature10561View ArticleADSGoogle Scholar - Visser M, Molina-Paris C:
**Acoustic geometry for general relativistic barotropic irrotational fluid flow.***New J Phys*2010.,**12:**Article ID 095014Google Scholar - Fagnocchi S, Finazzi S, Liberati S, Kormos M, Trombettoni A:
**Relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates: a new system for analogue models of gravity.***New J Phys*2010.,**12:**Article ID 095012Google Scholar - Bruschi DE, Sabín C, White A, Baccetti V, Oi DKL, Fuentes I:
**Testing the effects of gravity and motion on quantum entanglement in space-based experiments.***New J Phys.*2014.,**16:**Article ID 053041Google Scholar - Barceló C, Liberati S, Visser M:
**Analogue gravity.***Living Rev Relativ*2011.,**14:**Article ID 3Google Scholar - Garay LJ, Anglin JR, Cirac JI, Zoller P:
**Sonic analog of gravitational black holes in Bose-Einstein condensates.***Phys Rev Lett*2000.,**85:**Article ID 4643Google Scholar - Schley R, Berkovitz A, Rinott S, Shammass I, Blumkin A, Steinhauer J:
**Planck distribution of phonons in a Bose-Einstein condensate.***Phys Rev Lett*2013.,**111**(5)**:**Article ID 055301 - Steinahauer J:
**Observation of self-amplifying hawking radiation in an analogue black-hole laser.***Nat Phys*2014,**10:**864. 10.1038/nphys3104View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Pethick CJ, Smith H:
*Bose Einstein condensation in dilute gases*. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 2004.Google Scholar - Schneider U, Hackermüller L, Ronzheimer JP, Will S, Braun S, Best T, Bloch I, Demler E, Mandt S, Rasch D, Rosch A:
**Fermionic transport and out-of-equilibrium dynamics in a homogeneous Hubbard model with ultracold atoms.***Nat Phys*2012,**8:**213–218. 10.1038/nphys2205View ArticleGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.