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TableĀ 1 Common linear bulk-optics elements and their integrated-optics counterparts

From: Silicon nanophotonics for scalable quantum coherent feedback networks

Bulk optics Integrated optics Notes
Beam splitter Directional coupler The transmissivity tuned by proximity of waveguides.
Cavity Microring resonator, whispering gallery mode resonator The dimensions of integrated optics cavities are typically in the micrometers, allowing for very large (GHz) cavity bandwidths. Photon build-up and dissipation times are accordingly shortened, allowing for GHz switching. Furthermore, due to the reduced mode volume, integrated optics has great potential to demonstrate strongly coupled cavity quantum electrodynamics [29].
Mirror Distributed Bragg mirror The reflectivity tuned through modulation depth and/or number of Bragg periods.
Phase shifter/modulator Phase modulation by thermo-optic effect, or carrier injection/depletion Carrier density manipulation achieves much greater frequency of phase modulation compared to the thermo-optic effect.
Amplitude modulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) through phase modulators The amplitude of the MZI output field is controlled by varying the phase shift in one arm of the MZI.