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Table 2 Four tested PMTs, their corresponding nominal fluences, equivalent to in-orbit exposures over 6, 12, and 24 months, their DCRs, afterpulsing probabilities, and jitters before and after radiation, and their detection efficiency. PMTs were not powered during the radiation. The PMT from group 9 was not irradiated, and kept as a control

From: Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

Group Fluence @ 100 MeV, protons/cm 2 Before irradiation After irradiation
DRC, cps Afterpulsing, % Jitter, ps DCR, cps Afterpulsing, % Jitter, ps Efficiency, %
6 109 6.25 3.4 600 399 1.1 660 23
7 2 × 109 14.4 13.8 550 592 0.76 640 23
8 4 × 109 7 166 600 10 45 400 21
9 0 5 0.22 590 0.5 0.22 590 20