From: Laser annealing heals radiation damage in avalanche photodiodes
Sample ID | 106 MeV proton fluence ( \(\boldsymbol{\mathrm{cm}^{-2}}\) ) | Equivalent time in 600 km polar orbit (months) | Thermal annealing procedure | Dark count rate at \(\boldsymbol{{-}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}}\) | Annealing power (W) | \(\boldsymbol{V_{\text{excess}}}\) (V) | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Before (Hz) | Lowest after (Hz) | Highest reduction factor | Typical for pre-radiation (Hz) | ||||||
C30902SH-1 | 10^{9} | 6 | None | 347 | 2.3 | 150 | ∼5 | 0.8 | 14 |
C30902SH-2 | 10^{9} | 6 | None | 363 | 2.64 | 137 | 1.5 | 14 | |
SLiK-1 | 10^{8} | 0.6 | \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) | 6.71 | 0.16 | 41.7 | <1 | 1.4 | 14 |
SLiK-2 | 10^{8} | 0.6 | \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) | 2.19 | 0.42 | 5.3 | 0.8 | 14 | |
SLiK-3 | 4 × 10^{9} | 24 | \(4~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\), \(2~\mathrm {h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) | 43.1 | 2.09 | 21 | 1.4 | 14 | |
SLiK-4 | 10^{9} | 6 | None | 192 | 8.3 | 23 | 1.0 | 20 | |
SLiK-5 | 4 × 10^{9} | 24 (applied bias voltage) | \(3~\mathrm {h}~@~{+}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\), \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) | 447 | 58 | 7.7 | 1.0 | 20 | |
SAP500S2-1 | 4 × 10^{9} | 24 | \(4~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\), \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) | 1,579 | 2.08 | 758 | ∼2 | 1.4 | 20 |
SAP500S2-2 | 10^{8} | 0.6 | \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) | 213 | 1.66 | 128 | 1.6 | 20 |