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Table 1 Summary of detector samples, applied radiation, previous thermal annealing, and measured results of laser annealing

From: Laser annealing heals radiation damage in avalanche photodiodes

Sample ID 106 MeV proton fluence ( \(\boldsymbol{\mathrm{cm}^{-2}}\) ) Equivalent time in 600 km polar orbit (months) Thermal annealing procedure Dark count rate at \(\boldsymbol{{-}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}}\) Annealing power (W) \(\boldsymbol{V_{\text{excess}}}\) (V)
Before (Hz) Lowest after (Hz) Highest reduction factor Typical for pre-radiation (Hz)
C30902SH-1 109 6 None 347 2.3 150 5 0.8 14
C30902SH-2 109 6 None 363 2.64 137 1.5 14
SLiK-1 108 0.6 \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) 6.71 0.16 41.7 <1 1.4 14
SLiK-2 108 0.6 \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) 2.19 0.42 5.3 0.8 14
SLiK-3 4 × 109 24 \(4~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\), \(2~\mathrm {h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) 43.1 2.09 21 1.4 14
SLiK-4 109 6 None 192 8.3 23 1.0 20
SLiK-5 4 × 109 24 (applied bias voltage) \(3~\mathrm {h}~@~{+}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\), \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) 447 58 7.7 1.0 20
SAP500S2-1 4 × 109 24 \(4~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}80^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\), \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) 1,579 2.08 758 2 1.4 20
SAP500S2-2 108 0.6 \(2~\mathrm{h}~@~{+}100^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\) 213 1.66 128 1.6 20
  1. The detectors are referred to by the given sample IDs throughout the paper. The highest reduction factor is the ratio between the reference dark count rate before any laser annealing and the lowest dark count rate after laser annealing - the corresponding laser power for this is also given. We include typical pre-radiation dark count rates of each model under the same bias and temperature conditions [35, 37].